According to Amnesty International , the majority of those stoned are women and women are disproportionately affected by stoning because of sexism in the legal system.
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One study found that "on average, women receive lighter sentences in comparison with men We also find evidence of considerable heterogeneity across judges in their treatment of female and male offenders. There is little evidence, however, that tastes for gender discrimination are driving the mean gender disparity or the variance in treatment between judges. A study by Knepper found that "female plaintiffs filing workplace sex discrimination claims are substantially more likely to settle and win compensation whenever a female judge is assigned to the case. Additionally, female judges are 15 percentage points less likely than male judges to grant motions filed by defendants, which suggests that final negotiations are shaped by the emergence of the bias.
Women have traditionally had limited access to higher education. Educational specialties in higher education produce and perpetuate inequality between men and women. World literacy is lower for females than for males. Data from The World Factbook shows that In parts of Afghanistan, girls who go to school face serious violence from some local community members and religious groups. Educational opportunities and outcomes for women have greatly improved in the West. Since , the proportion of women enrolled in college in the United States has exceeded the enrollment rate for men, and the gap has widened over time.
Writer Gerry Garibaldi has argued that the educational system has become "feminized", allowing girls more of a chance at success with a more "girl-friendly" environment in the classroom;  this is seen to hinder boys by punishing "masculine" behavior and diagnosing boys with behavioral disorders. The researchers attribute this to stereotypical ideas about boys and recommend teachers to be aware of this gender bias.
Feminists argue that clothing and footwear fashion has been oppressive to women, restricting their movements, increasing their vulnerability, and endangering their health. The assignment of gender-specific baby clothes can instill in children a belief in negative gender stereotypes. The fashion is a recent one; at the beginning of the 20th century the trend was the opposite: blue for girls and pink for boys. DressMaker magazine also explained that "[t]he preferred colour to dress young boys in is pink. Blue is reserved for girls as it is considered paler, and the more dainty of the two colours, and pink is thought to be stronger akin to red ".
From the midth century  until the late 19th or early 20th century, young boys in the Western world were unbreeched and wore gowns or dresses until an age that varied between two and eight. Laws that dictate how women must dress are seen by many international human rights organizations, such as Amnesty International , as a form of gender discrimination.
Interpretations of religion, culture, or tradition cannot justify imposing rules about dress on those who choose to dress differently. States should take measures to protect individuals from being coerced to dress in specific ways by family members, community or religious groups or leaders. The production process also faces criticism for sexist practices. In the garment industry, approximately 80 percent of workers are female.
Women who work in these factories are sexually harassed by managers and male workers, paid low wages, and discriminated against when pregnant. Conscription , or compulsory military service, has been criticized as sexist. In his book The Second Sexism: Discrimination Against Men and Boys , philosopher David Benatar states that "[t]he prevailing assumption is that where conscription is necessary, it is only men who should be conscripted and, similarly, that only males should be forced into combat".
This, he believes, "is a sexist assumption". In , Norway became the first NATO country to introduce obligatory military service for women as an act of gender equality   and in , the Dutch government started preparing a gender-neutral draft law. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For discrimination based on sexuality, see Sexual orientation discrimination.
For other uses, see Anti-sex disambiguation. General forms. Related topics. Main article: Witch hunt. Main articles: Coverture , Marital power , Restitution of conjugal rights , Kirchberg v. Feenstra , and Marriage bar. Women's suffrage Muslim countries US.
First Second Third Fourth. Variants general. Variants religious. By country. Lists and categories. Lists Articles Feminists by nationality Literature American feminist literature Feminist comic books. See also: Gender-neutral language. Main articles: Occupational sexism and Second-generation gender bias. The practice of using first names for individuals from a profession that is predominantly female occurs in health care.
Physicians are typically referred to using their last name, but nurses are referred to, even by physicians they do not know, by their first name. According to Suzanne Gordon, a typical conversation between a physician and a nurse is: "Hello Jane. I'm Dr. Would you hand me the patient's chart? Main article: Gender pay gap. Main article: Glass ceiling. See also: Transgender inequality. See also: Feminist views on pornography. Further information: Honor killing , Acid throwing , and Dowry death. Main article: Female genital mutilation.
Main articles: Sexual assault and Post-assault treatment of sexual assault victims. Main article: War rape. Main articles: Child marriage and Forced marriage. Further information: Dowry and Bride price. Main articles: Sex differences in education and Sexism in academia. See also: Foot binding and Burqa. Further information: List of historical sources for pink and blue as gender signifiers. Main article: Conscription and sexism. This section may have too many links to other articles , and could require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards.
Per the Wikipedia style guidelines , please remove duplicate links, and any links that are not relevant to the context. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. See, for example: "Sexism". New Oxford American Dictionary 3 ed. Oxford University Press. Defines sexism as "prejudice, stereotyping, or discrimination, typically against women, on the basis of sex".
Defines sexism as "prejudice or discrimination based on sex or gender, especially against women and girls". Notes that "sexism in a society is most commonly applied against women and girls. It functions to maintain patriarchy, or male domination, through ideological and material practices of individuals, collectives, and institutions that oppress women and girls on the basis of sex or gender. A Companion to Applied Ethics. London: Blackwell. Notes that " 'Sexism' refers to a historically and globally pervasive form of oppression against women.
In O'Brien, Jodi ed. Encyclopedia of Gender and Society. Notes that "sexism usually refers to prejudice or discrimination based on sex or gender, especially against women and girls". Also states that "sexism is an ideology or practices that maintain patriarchy or male domination. In Honderich, Ted ed. The Oxford Companion to Philosophy 2 ed. Defines sexism as "thought or practice which may permeate language and which assumes women's inferiority to men". Collins Dictionary of Sociology. Harper Collins. Defines sexism as "any devaluation or denigration of women or men, but particularly women, which is embodied in institutions and social relationships.
Palgrave MacMillan. Notes that "either sex may be the object of sexist attitudes Built upon the belief that men and women are constitutionally different, sexism takes these differences as indications that men are inherently superior to women, which then is used to justify the nearly universal dominance of men in social and familial relationships, as well as politics, religion, language, law, and economics. In Kurlan, George Thomas ed. The Encyclopedia of Political Science.
CQ Press. Notes that "both men and women can experience sexism, but sexism against women is more pervasive". Johnson, Allan G. The Blackwell Dictionary of Sociology. Suggests that "the key test of whether something is sexist I specify 'male privilege' because in every known society where gender inequality exists, males are privileged over females. Gender Inequality: Feminist Theories and Politics. Notes that "although we speak of gender inequality, it is usually women who are disadvantaged relative to similarly situated men".
Wortman, Camille B. The Handbook of Culture and Psychology. American Journal of Psychiatry. SOC 5th ed. Beyond Comparison: Sex and Discrimination. New York: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved April 20, The term has legal, as well as theoretical and psychological, definitions. Psychological consequences can be more readily inferred from the latter, but both definitions are of significance.
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Organizing Against Pornography. Random House. The Guardian. In: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Reprinted in: Mackinnon Think Tank. Retrieved 19 September US Legal. Retrieved 19 March In common law jurisdictions like the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and Canada, some of the evidentiary jurisprudence clearly linked chastity with veracity. Men accused of sexual assault were therefore able to use evidence of prostitution to defend themselves, to undermine the credibility of rape complainants and to successfully avoid conviction.
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Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. Preview — Radical Men by David Franklin. Between mass media, cultural standards, and well-meaning men's leaders, chances are that you are overwhelmed with expectations of what it means to be a man. As a result, many men constantly chase an external ideal that often results in unfulfilling work, addiction, obsession with sex and pornography, depression, unsatisfying relationships, and a sense of meaninglessness, c Between mass media, cultural standards, and well-meaning men's leaders, chances are that you are overwhelmed with expectations of what it means to be a man.
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